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Table 3 Comparison between cases without cervical surgery and those with cervical surgery

From: Surgical outcomes for lumbar spinal canal stenosis with coexisting cervical stenosis (tandem spinal stenosis): a retrospective analysis of 565 cases

  Only lumbar operation Additional cervical operation p
Case, no 174 28  
Sex, female/male, o 83/91 13/15  
Decompression/posterior fusion, no 67/107 23/5  
One-stage/two-stage additional operation 11/17  
Period between cervical and lumbar surgery, average, years 1.0 ± 1.3 (0–5)  
Age, average (range) 72.2 ± 8.5 (32–89) 70.8 ± 10.6 (43–92) NS
YAM, average (range) 92.4 ± 17.8 (48–137) 93.8 ± 17.4 (69–127) NS
Operative time, average (range), min 221.4 ± 108.5 (44–749) 201.6 ± 107.4 (70–572) NS
Blood loss, average (range), mL 381.5 ± 493.1 (6–4150) 315.5 ± 366.5 (70–1450) NS
Pre lumbar operative L-JOA score, average (range), points 14.3 ± 4.5 (− 2–24) 13.2 ± 5.4 (− 2–22) NS
Pre cervical operative L-JOA score, average (range), points 14.8 ± 7.3 (3–26)  
Postoperative L-JOA score, average (range), points 23.5 ± 4.3 (9–29)* 19.9 ± 5.0 (11–29) 0.0005
Recovery rate of L-JOA score, average (range), % 62.8 ± 25.8 (− 8.3–100)* 39.8 ± 35.5 (− 57.1–100) 0.0003
Preoperative C-JOA score, average (range), points 10.3 ± 2.8 (5–15)  
Postoperative C-JOA score, average (range), points 12.1 ± 3.0 (6.5–17)  
Recovery rate of C-JOA score, average (range), % 28.5 ± 31.3 (0–100)  
Symptomatic cervical stenosis, no 30 (17.2%) 28 (100%)  
Revisions, no 24 (13.8%) 0 (0%)  
C-OPLL, no 17 (9.8%) 6 (21.4%) NS
HT, no 97 (55.7%) 15 (53.6%) NS
HL, no 26 (14.9%) 8 (28.6%) NS
DM, no 40 (23.0%) 8 (29.3%) NS
Smoking, no 57 (32.8%) 6 (21.4%) NS
IHD, no 31 (17.8%) 4 (14.3%) NS
HD, no 12 (6.9%) 4 (14.3%) NS
Collagen disease, no 15 (8.6%) 1 (3.6%) NS
Obesity, BMI > 25, no 71 (40.8%) 12 (42.9%) NS
Artificial joint, TKA or THA, no 10 (5.7%) 1 (3.6%) NS
Osteoporosis, YAM < 70%, no 23 (13.2%) 0 (0%)  
  1. Abbreviations: YAM young adult mean, L-JOA Japanese Orthopedic Association for lumbar spinal canal stenosis, C-JOA Japanese Orthopedic Association for cervical myelopathy, C-OPLL ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine, HT hypertension, HL hyperlipidemia, DM diabetes mellitus, IHD ischemic heart disease, HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index, TKA total knee arthroplasty, THA total hip arthroplasty, NS not significant
  2. *p < .05