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Table 2 Comparison between cases without TSS and those with TSS

From: Surgical outcomes for lumbar spinal canal stenosis with coexisting cervical stenosis (tandem spinal stenosis): a retrospective analysis of 565 cases

  Non-TSS TSS p
Case, no 363 202  
Sex, female/male, no 190/173 96/106  
Decompression/posterior fusion, no 132/231 90/112  
Age, average (range) 70.0 ± 9.8 (34–88) 72.0 ± 8.8 (32–92) NS
YAM, average (range) 90.0 ± 16.5 (52–149) 92.5 ± 17.7 (48–137) NS
Operative time, average (range), min 221.4 ± 101.7 (50–746) 218.8 ± 108.3 (44–749) NS
Blood loss, average (range), mL 420.7 ± 663.8 (6–998) 372.8 ± 478.1 (6–4150) NS
Preoperative L-JOA score, average (range), points 14.8 ± 4.4 (0–24) 14.2 ± 4.6 (− 2–24) NS
Postoperative L-JOA score, average (range), points 23.9 ± 4.3 (8–29) 23.1 ± 4.5 (9–29) NS
Recovery rate of L-JOA score, average (range), % 63.7 ± 28.2 (− 70.6–100) 60.3 ± 27.9 (− 57.1–100) NS
Revisions, no 36 (9.9%) 24 (11.9%) NS
Symptomatic cervical stenosis, no 0 (0%) 58 (28.7%)  
Cervical operation, no 0 (0%) 28 (13.9%)  
C-OPLL, no 0 (0%) 23 (11.3%)  
HT, no 166 (45.7%) 112 (55.4%)* 0.0268
HL, no 59 (16.2%) 34 (16.8%) NS
DM, no 73 (20.1%) 48 (23.8%) NS
Smoking, no 96 (26.4%) 63 (31.2%) NS
IHD, no 61 (16.8%) 35 (17.3%) NS
HD, no 14 (3.9%) 16 (7.9%)* 0.039
Collagen disease, no 30 (8.3%) 16 (7.9%) NS
Obesity, BMI > 25, no 133 (36.6%) 83 (41.0%) NS
Artificial joint, TKA or THA, no 22 (6.1%) 11 (5.4%) NS
Osteoporosis, YAM < 70%, no 45 (12.4%) 23 (11.4%) NS
  1. Abbreviations: TSS tandem spinal stenosis, YAM young adult mean, L-JOA Japanese Orthopedic Association for lumbar spinal canal stenosis, C-OPLL ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine, HT hypertension, HL hyperlipidemia, DM diabetes mellitus, IHD ischemic heart disease, HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index, TKA total knee arthroplasty, THA total hip arthroplasty, NS not significant
  2. *p < .05