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Table 1 Demographics

From: Surgical outcomes for lumbar spinal canal stenosis with coexisting cervical stenosis (tandem spinal stenosis): a retrospective analysis of 565 cases

LCS case, no 565
Disease type Hypertorophy of the flavum, no 288 (51.0%)
Disc herniation (> 2 levels), no 60 (10.6%)
Degenerative kyphosis, no 23 (4.1%)
Degenerative scoliosis, no 21 (3.7%)
Spondylolisthesis, no 161 (28.5%)
L-OYL, no 11 (1.9%)
L-OPLL, no 1 (0.2%)
Sex, female/male, no 286/279
Age, average (range) 70.7 ± 9.5 (32–92)
YAM, average (range) 90.9 ± 17.0 (48–149)
Surgical method Decompression/posterior fusion, no 222/343
Follow-up period, average, years 3.2 ± 1.6
Lumbar surgical outcomes Operative time, average (range), min 220.5 ± 104.0 (44–749)
Blood loss, average (range), mL 403.9 ± 604.7 (6–6380)
Preoperative L-JOA score, average (range), points 14.6 ± 4.4 (− 2–24)
Postoperative L-JOA score, average (range), points 23.6 ± 4.4 (8–29)
Recovery rate of L-JOA score, average (range), % 62.5 ± 28.1 (− 70.6–100)
Revisions, no 60 (10.6%)
TSS Radiological cervical stenosis, no 202 (35.8%)
Symptomatic cervical stenosis, no 58 (10.3%)
Cervical operation, no 28 (5.0%)
Preoperative comorbidities C-OPLL, no 23 (4.1%)
HT, no 278 (49.2%)
HL, no 93 (16.5%)
DM, no 121 (21.4%)
Smoking, no 159 (28.1%)
IHD, no 96 (17.0%)
HD, no 30 (5.3%)
Collagen disease, no 46 (8.1%)
Obesity, BMI > 25, no 216 (38.2%)
Artificial joint, TKA or THA, no 33 (5.8%)
Osteoporosis, YAM < 70%, no 68 (12.0%)
  1. Abbreviations: LCS lumbar spinal canal stenosis, L-OYL ossification of yellow ligament of the lumbar spine, L-OPLL ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the lumbar spine, YAM young adult mean, L-JOA Japanese Orthopedic Association for lumbar spinal canal stenosis, TSS tandem spinal stenosis, C-OPLL ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine, HT hypertension, HL hyperlipidemia, DM diabetes mellitus, IHD ischemic heart disease, HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index, TKA total knee arthroplasty, THA total hip arthroplasty