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Table 3 Total ankle arthroplasty and ankle arthrodesis study complications, reoperations, and failures

From: Total ankle arthroplasty versus ankle arthrodesis—a comparison of outcomes over the last decade

   Complication rate    
Author Number of ankles Wound complications (n) Fracture (n) Deep infection (n) TAA aseptic loosening/AA nonunion (n) Overall rate (n) Non-revision reoperation rate Revision for implant failure (TAA) or revision fusion (AA) Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA)
 Gross et al. [14] 455 NR NR 1.5% (7) NR 14.1% (64) NR 3.1% (14) NR
 Demetracopoulos et al. [15] 395 6.6% (26) NR 0.8% (3) NR NR 9.6% (38) 5.1% (20) NR
 Lewis et al. [16] 249 8.4% (21) 3.6% (9) 1.2% (3) 4.0% (10) NR 14.5% (36) 8.4% (21) NR
 Barg et al. [17] 722 NR NR 0.4% (3) 5.8% (42) NR NR 8.4% (61) 94.0% at 5 years 84.0% at 10 years
 Schenk et al. [18] 218 2.3% (5) 2.3% (5) 1.4% (3) 1.8% (4) NR NR 16.5% (36) 86.6% at 5 years (95% CI 81.2–91.9)
 Wood et al. [19] 200 2.5% (5) 9.5% (19) NR 12.5% (25) 32.5% (65) 3.0% (6) 12.0% (24) 93.3% at 5 years (95% CI 89.8–96.8) 80.3% at 10 years (95% CI 71.0–89.6)
 Adjusted rate 2239 5.4% (57/1062) 4.9% (33/667) 0.9% (19/2039) 5.8% (81/1389) 19.7% (129/655) 9.5% (80/844) 7.9% (176/2239)  
Ankle arthrodesis (AA)
 Chalayon et al. [8] 215 14.4% (31) 0.9% (2) 5.1% (11) 9.3% (20) 40.9% (88) 11.2% (24) 7.4% (16) NR
 Gordon et al. [9] 82 2.4% (2) 1.2% (1) 0% (0) 0% (0) 20.7% (17) 14.6% (12) 0% (0) NR
 Zwipp et al. [10] 94 5.3% (5) 0% (0) 0% (0) 1.1% (1) 9.6% (9) 3.2% (3) 1.1% (1) NR
 Nielsen et al. [11] 107 NR NR 2.8% (3) 10.3% (11) NR 23.4% (25) 4.7% (5) NR
 Muckley et al. [12] 110 10% (11) 0.9% (1) 7.3% (8) 14.5% (16) 19.1% (21) NR 10% (11) NR
 Adjusted rate 608 9.8% (49/501) 0.8% (4/501) 3.6% (22/608) 7.9% (48/608) 26.9% (135/501) 12.9% (64/498) 5.4% (33/608)  
  1. Abbreviations: TAA total ankle arthroplasty, AA ankle arthrodesis, NR not reported, CI confidence interval