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Table 1 The force required when the patella shifts 10 mm laterally

From: Biomechanical comparison of single- and double-bundle medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction

Group 15° 30° 45° 60° 90°
MPFL intact 74.3 ± 10.7†#Δ 74.7 ± 10.6 92.3 ± 12.2* 86.5 ± 10.1 96.3 ± 10.0* 101.5 ± 13.8*
MPFL cut 45.5 ± 9.6 48.9 ± 8.9 53.5 ± 9.7 57.3 ± 7.6 84.0 ± 11.5 85.5 ± 10.9
MPFL single-R 71.7 ± 8.0†‡#Δ 74.0 ± 7.9 97.9 ± 12.6* 90.6 ± 11.1* 89.4 ± 9.3* 97.7 ± 12.1*
MPFL double-R 74.8 ± 8.0†#Δ 85.9 ± 10.1Δ 91.5 ± 8.4Δ 84.7 ± 8.9Δ 92.1 ± 10.1Δ 106.3 ± 13.5Δ
  1. In the same group, *Others vs. 15° P < 0.05; Others vs. 30° P < 0.05; Others vs. 45° P < 0.05; #Others vs. 60° P < 0.05; ΔOthers vs. 90° P < 0.05