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Table 2 Steps of translation and trans-cultural adaptation

From: Simplified Chinese version of the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) for patients who underwent joint arthroplasty: cross-cultural adaptation and validation

Steps Detailed contents
Forward translation Two bilingual translators independently translated the metric from English to simplified Chinese. One of the translators was an orthopedic surgeon in the author’s hospital; the other one was a professional translator without medical background.
Synthesis of the translation Two translators and other researchers unified contradictions regarding language expression and cultural difference after a consensus meeting and obtained the first SC-FJS.
Backward translation Two native English speakers fluent in English, with medical background and blind to the previous original English version of FJS, independently translated the first SC-FJS back into the English version.
Summarization of prefinal version A consensus meeting with all researchers including four forward and backward translators was held to resolve all discrepancies, ambiguities, or any other verbal issues to reach a prefinal SC-FJS.
Determination of final version Researchers invited 20 patients underwent TKA to preliminarily test the prefinal version and collect feedbacks from them.
  1. FJS Forgotten Joint Score, SC-FJS simplified Chinese version of the Forgotten Joint Score, TKA total knee arthroplasty