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Table 3 Element type and material attributes of normal lumbar finite element model

From: Construction and validation of a three-dimensional finite element model of degenerative scoliosis

Tissue and area Element type Modulus of elasticity (MPa)/Poisson ratio Thickness cross-section area
Cortical bone 6 node points triangular facet shell element 12,000/0.3 1.2 mm
Cancellous bone 10 node points tetrahedron solid element 100/0.3  
Lamina terminalis 10 node points tetrahedron solid element 4000/0.4 0.5 mm
Groundmass of annulus fibrosus 10 node points tetrahedron solid element 4.2/0.45  
Nucleus pulposus 10 node points tetrahedron solid element 4/0.49  
Fiber of annulus fibrosus 2 node points cord element  
Articular cartilage 10 node points tetrahedron solid element 1000/0.3 0.5 mm
Contact face of superior articular process 6 node points triangular facet object element   
Contact face of inferior articular process 6 node points triangular facet shell element   
Anterior longitudinal ligament 2 node points cord element   75.9 mm2
Posterior longitudinal ligament 2 node points cord element   51.8 mm2
Ligamentum flavum 2 node points cord element   78.7 mm2
Capsular ligament 2 node points cord element   102.5 mm2
Interspinous ligament 2 node points cord element   36.3 mm2
Supraspinous ligament 2 node points cord element   75.7 mm2
Intertransverse ligament 2 node points cord element   40.5 mm2