Skip to main content

Table 3 Rotational axes and angles from various studies

From: Rotational landmarks of the distal femur in Indian population: A MRI-based study

Studies Condylar twist angle (CTA) Posterior condylar angle (PCA) W-EP W-PC
Cadaveric studies
 Arima et al. [9] 4.4 (2.9)    
 Berger et al. [10] Male 4.7 (3.5) Male 3.5 (1.2)   
Female 5.2 (4.1) Female 0.3 (1.2)
 Yip et al. [12]   Males 5.1 (1.9)   
Females 5.8 (1.8)
 Yoshioka et al. [24] Male 5 (1.8)    
Female 6 (2.4)
 Mantas et al. [25] Right 4.9 (2.1)    
Left 4.9 (2.3)
Male 4.4 (2)
Female 6.4 (2.2)
 Katz et al. [26] 6.1 (3.3)    
Intraoperative studies     
 Poilvache et al. [14] 3.60 (2.02)   90.33 (2.44) 86.92 (2.71)
Males 3.58 (2.16)   Male 91.2 (2.15) Male 88.07 (2.34)
Female 3.62 (1.93)   Female 89.59 (2.45) Female 85.94 (2.64)
Varus-neutral 3.51 (2.03)   Varus-neutral 90.53 (2.36) Varus-neutral 87.27 (2.57)
Valgus 4.41 (1.83)   Valgus 88.73 (2.57) Valgus 84.09 (2.21)
 Griffin et al. [11]   Average 3.7 (2.2)   
Male 3.6 (1.8)
Female 3.7 (2.6)
Varus 3.3 (1.9)
Neutral 3.3 (2.3)
Valgus 5.4 (2.3)
Radiograph-based studies
 Arima et al. [9] 5.7 (1.7)    
CT-based studies
 Akagi et al. [5] OA knees 6.8 (1.8)    
 Nagamine et al. [27] Normal 5.8 (2.7)   87.7 (3.9) 93.5 (4)
PF-OA 6.4 (2.4)    
FT-OA 6.2 (1.9) (arthritic knees)    
 Yoshino et al. [18] 6.4 (1.6) (arthritic knees) Average 3 (1.6)   
 Takai et al. [28] 6.8 (2) (arthritic knees)    
6.3 (1.5) (normal knees)    
 Mullaji et al. [30] 5 (1.7) (normal knees)   90.8 (3.7) 95.8 (3.5)
MRI-based studies
 Current study 5.92 (2.32) (normal knees)   88.99 (2.86) 94.09 (2.84)
 Matsuda et al. [19] Normal 6.03 (3.60)    
Varus 6 (2.35)
 Griffin et al. [11]   3.11 (1.75)   
  Male 2.75 (1.61)   
  Female 3.33 (1.82)   
  <41 years 2.71 (1.56)   
  >41 years 3.50 (1.86)   
  1. Mean values are given in degrees (°). Those in brackets are the standard deviation