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Table 3 Rotational ROMs of the syndesmosis during stance phase in different studies

From: Three-dimensional motions of distal syndesmosis during walking

ROM Condition Dorsi(+)/plantarflexion (−) Inversion(+)/eversion(−) Internal(+)/external rotation(−)
Present study Normal gait 3D/2D registration 2.98 ± 1.10° 5.94 ± 1.52° 5.99 ± 2.00°
Huber et al. [9] Cadaver maximal plantar to dorsiflexion 1.18 ± 0.57° 1.18 ± 0.36° 2.78 ± 1.08°
Lundgren et al. [13] Normal gait intracortical pins 4.78 ± 1.68° 3.38 ± 1.28° 3.58 ± 1.28°
Arndt et al. [12, 20] Slow running intracortical pins 3.3 ± 2.4° 2.3 ± 0.9° 1.6 ± 0.3°