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Table 1 Multi-axial rotation of the 1st MC joint during weight-bearing comditions

From: Mobility of the first metatarsal-cuneiform joint in patients with and without hallux valgus: in vivo three-dimensional analysis using computerized tomography scan

  Around X-axis (°) Around Y-axis (°) Around Z-axis (°)
  pf (+) df (−) Mean(SD) pro (+) Sup (−) Mean (SD) Inr (+) Exr (−) Mean (SD)
1st metatarsal
 Healthy feet 0 20 −1.56 (0.94)* 20 0 3.03 (1.51) 20 0 1.50 (0.53)
 HV feet 0 20 −3.13 (1.29)* 20 0 3.55 (1.97) 20 0 2.28 (2.06)
Medial cuneiform
 Healthy feet 4 16 −0.38 (0.69) 20 0 4.00 (1.69)* 18 2 0.54 (0.79)*
 HV feet 8 12 −0.22 (1.49) 20 0 5.72 (2.04)* 8 12 −0.37 (1.01)*
1st MC joint
 Healthy feet 0 20 −1.18 (0.47)* 2 18 −0.98 (0.81)* 20 0 0.96 (0.57)*
 HV feet 0 20 −2.91 (1.71)* 3 17 −2.17 (2.28)* 20 0 2.65 (2.22)*
  1. pf plantar flexion, df dorsiflexion, pro pronation, sup supination, inr internal rotation, exr external rotation, HV hallux valgus, MC metatarsal-cuneiform
  2. *Significant difference between two groups (P value <0.05)