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Table 2 Details of co-factors and measurement of studies

From: Does hydroxyapatite coating have no advantage over porous coating in primary total hip arthroplasty? A meta-analysis

Study Purity and thickness of HA Surgery approach Co-factors Follow-up (years) Missing information Hip implant Outcome measurement
Camazzola et al. [28] NR Hardinge approach Routine antibiotic prophylaxis; anticoagulation with dicumarin was used preoperatively and for a total of 3 months postoperatively, full weight-bearing for 6 weeks 13 years and 5 months (12–15 years and 3 months) 4 patients were lost to follow-up, 8 died. 1 refuced to participate in the questionnaire or clinical follow-up Mallory-Head porous stem (Biomet) HHS, radiographic outcome, thigh pain, survival
Dorr et al. [16] 94% purity, 50–60 μm NR NR 6.5 (5–7.9) No Anatomic porous replacement—I hip stem (Intermedics Ortho) HHS, radiographic outcome
Hamadouche et al. [34] 100 ± 30 μm Posterolateral approach and a Hardinge lateral approach Postoperative management include administration of systemic antibiotics for 48 h, preventative anticoagulation therapy until full weight-bearing, and NSAID for 5 days to prevent heterotopic ossification, partial weight-bearing was allowed for 6 weeks followed by full weight-bearing 9.18 (3.93–10.28) One patient from each group died from an unrelated cause at three months and at 27 months after surgery, three patients were lost to follow-up at a mean of three years, of these, one belonged to the HA and two to the GB group Profile (DePuy) HHS, radiographic outcome
Incavo et al. [32] NR NR NR 4 no ProWle (DePuy) HHS, radiographic outcome
Kim et al. [23] 30 μm Posterolateral approach Stand on the second postoperative day. Partial weight-bearing with crutches as tolerated, full weight-bearing was allowed at 6 weeks after surgery 6.6 (5–7) No Cementless IPS femoral component (DePuy) HHS, functional outcome, thigh pain, radiographic outcome, survivorship, complications
Kim et al. [24] 30 μm Posterolateral approach NR 15.6 (15–16) 3 were lost to follow-up, 2 died IPS femoral stem (DePuy) HHS, WOMAC, thigh pain, Los Angeles activity score, survivorship
Lee and Lee 2007 [33] 98% purity, 150–250 μm Direct lateral approach (transgluteal approach) Hip joint motion and ambulation using a wheelchair were allowed from the first postoperative week, crutch walking with partial weight-bearing began 3 to 4 weeks after the second operation. In addition, the patients used a cane for additional 2 to 4 months until they could walk well without any support 143 (123–168) 4 patients died, 5 patients were lost Spotorno (Zimmer) Merle d’Aubigne and Postel score, radiographic outcome
Lombardi, Jr. et al. [12] 95% purity, 50–75 μm NR Routine clinical evaluation was performed under the supervision of the operative surgeons 14.5 (10.2–16.6)/16.9 (11.4–18.5) 27 patients in the MHP group and 5 patients in the MHP HA group were decreased from causes unrelated to the index surgery. In addition, 14 patients (14 hips, 10.8%) in the MHP group and nine patients (10 hips, 16.4%) in the MHP HA group had not returned for minimum 10-year follow-up and were lost to contact Mallory-Head porous stem (Biomet) HHS, radiographic findings, survival
Mcpherson et al. [36] 94% purity, 50–60 μm NR NR 3 No Anatomic porous replacement—I hip stem (intermedics orthopedics) HHS, radiographic fixation scores
Parvizi et al. [9] NR NR NR 9.2 ± 4.8/10.1 ± 4.6 Each one of the members of nine pairs of patients is dead Taperloc, Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana HHS, radiographic findings
Paulsen et al. [38] 95–97% purity, 50–75 μm NR NR 3.2 No Biometric (Biomet) Time to implant failure
Ranawat et al. [35] 95% purity, 50–75 μm Posterolateral approach Standard postoperative rehabilitation protocol 5 (3–8) for thigh pain, 17.7 + −0.8 (16.3–20) 53 patients were deceased, 28 patients were lost to follow-up Ranawat-Burstein metaphyseal-diaphyseal fit femoral stem (Biomet) HSS, functional outcome(patient assessment questionnaire), incidence of pain, radiographic outcome, stem subsidence Kaplan-Meier survivorship
Rothman et al. [10] 95% purity, 50–75 μm NR Prophylactic antibiotics were given intravenously at the time of the operation and were continued for 48 h. Ten milligrams of low-dose warfarin was given on the night of the operation, instructed to bear only 10% of the body weight on the affected limb for 6 weeks, at which time, they progressed to use of a cane 2.2 (2–3.4) No Taperloc stem (Biomet) Charnley scores, radiographic outcome
Sanchez-Sotelo et al. [37] NR NR NR 6.7 (2.4–9.1)/9.3 (2.2–11.4) No Omniflex stem (Osteonics Corporation) HHS, radiographs, survival
Sano et al. [39] NR Posterior approach Partial weight-bearing was allowed 1 week after the operation, with full weight-bearing after 3 weeks 34/52 m No Biomet (Warsaw); Stryker(Fairfield Rd) HHS, BMD, radiographic outcome
Santori et al. [14] 70% purity, 80–130 μm NR Partial weight bearing with two canes was allowed on the fifth postoperative day and progressed to one cane on day 30 70 m (60–84) No Anatomic prosthesis (Zimmer) HHS, thigh pain, radiographic evaluation
Søballe et al. [4] 50–75 μm Posterolateral approach Prophylactic antibiotics and anti-thromboembolic drugs, mobilized on the third postoperative day and instructed to walk with protected weight-bearing for the first six postoperative weeks 1 11 patients were excluded from RSA because of technical errors, 1 patient with bilateral THR died from unrelated disease Biometric (Biomet) HHS, the visual analog scale score, radiographs data, RSA
Tanzer et al. [22] 80% HA, 20% TCP, 80 μm Posterolateral approach All patients remained non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks, followed by progressive weight-bearing as tolerated 2 No Cementless multilock stem (Zimmer) HHS, periprosthetic BMD measurement
Tanzer et al. [31] 80% HA, 20% TCP, 80 μm Posterolateral approach for 64% and 69% in groups uncoated and coated, lateral approach was used in the remainder All patients were non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks postoperatively, followed by progressive weight-bearing as tolerated 37 m (2–5 years) 16 patients in the group with uncoated and 11 patients in the group with coated components withdraw or were lost to follow-up; 4 in uncoated and 3 in coated died Cementless multilock stem (Zimmer) HHS, WOMAC, radiographic data
Yee et al. [30] 95% purity, 50–70 μm A modified lateral Hardinge approach Routine prophylactic antibiotic(cefazolin sodium) was administered before surgery and 48 h after surgery; anticoagulation with dicumarin was given: 5 mg orally the night before surgery and daily for a duration of 3 months after surgery. Physical therapy was commenced on the first or second day after surgery. Tough weight-bearing with crutches for 6 weeks was allowed for uncomplicated cases. Progression to full weight-bearing as tolerated was allowed after 6 weeks 4.6 (3–7) 6 patients were lost to follow-up, 1 died of cardiac causes.1 patient declined additional participation in the study after surgery, 1 with bilateral THA was involved in a motor vehicle accident that resulted in a periprosthetic fracture of one hip Mallory-Head porous femoral stem (Biomet) HHS, routine radiographs, survivorship
Yoon et al. [29] 70% HA, 30% TCP, 70 μm Hardinge’s lateral approach Instruted to walk with partial weight-bearing with the aid of 2 crutches for 4 weeks after surgery 127.4 m (96–144)/127 (108–144) 2 patients in the coated group died of myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, 2 patients in coated and 2 in uncoated were lost to follow-up Multilock femoral stem (Zimmer) HHS, radiographic evaluation, thigh pain
  1. HA hydroxyapatite, TCP tricalcium phosphate, NR not reported, HHS Harris hip score, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores, RSA Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis, HSS hospital for special surgery hip score.