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Table 1 Study characteristics of randomized studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Endoscopic versus open carpal tunnel release for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Study design Publication year Country Number (hands) Gender (F/M) Age (year) Treatment Study visits (week postoperative) Efficacy variables Complication
Agee 1992 Randomized Ten-center study 1992 US ECTR: 65 OCTR: 82 147 hands in 122 patients UN UN Agee’s one-portal procedure Regional block or general anesthesia 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 13, 26 Grip strength, pinch strength, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament sensory mapping, Phalen’s wrist flexion test, Tinel’s test, manual motor testing, time return to work ECTR: 4/65 (2 partial transection, 2 transient ulnar neurapraxia) OCTR: 4/82 (1 deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve, 1 bowstringing of the digital flexor tendons, 2 wound dehiscence)
Brown 1993 Prospective, multicenter, randomized study 1993 US ECTR: 84 OCTR: 85 169 hands in 151 31/53 23/62 57 55 Two-portal technique 3, 6, 12 Strength, pinch strength, satisfaction, pain ECTR: 4/84 (1 partial transection, 2 nerve injury, 1 wound hematoma) OCTR: 0/85
Sennwald and Benedetti 1995 Prospective randomized study 1995 Switzerland ECTR: 25 OCTR: 22 19/6 18/4 48.6 57 One-portal procedure Regional anesthesia 4, 8, 12 Pain, grip, key-pinch strength, and ability to return to work Operative time ECTR: 1/25 (1 neurapraxia) OCTR: 2/22 (1 RSD, 1 hypotrophic scar)
Dumontier 1995 Prospective randomized study 1995 France ECTR:56 OCTR:40 49/7 36/4 53.4 50.7 Two-portal technique 2, 4, 12 Numbness, pain, return to work, pinch and grip strength ECTR: 2/56 OCTR:2/40 (2 reflex sympathetic dystrophy for both groups)
Jacobsen 1996 Prospective randomized study 1996 Sweden ECTR: 16 OCTR: 16 29 patients 11/5 12/4 UN Two-portal technique 2, 6, 24 Return to work, patient satisfaction ECTR: 3/16 (3 transient numbness) OCTR: 0/16
MacDermid 2003 Prospective randomized study 2003 Canada ECTR: 91 OCTR: 32 62/29 22/10 45 53 Two-portal Chow’s procedure 1, 6, 12 Symptom severity, pain, pinch, grip strength, satisfaction ECTR: 0/91 OCTR: 0/32
Ferdinand 2002 Prospective randomized blinded study 2002 Scotland ECTR: 25 OCTR: 25 20/5 20/5 54.88 Two-portal 6, 12, 26, 52 Return to work, day off ADL score, satisfaction, operative time ECTR: 1/25 (wound pain) OCTR: 3/25 (2 persisting pain, 1 nerve injury)
Trumble 2002 Prospective multicenter randomized study 2002 US ECTR: 97 OCTR: 95 48/27 47/25 56 56 One-portal 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, 52 Symptom severity score, function score, operative time, satisfaction score, median time return to work, cost ECTR: 0/97 OCTR: 2/95 (2 reflex sympathetic dystrophy)
Wong 2003 Prospective randomized study 2003 HK ECTR: 30 OCTR: 30 28/2 28/2 47 47 Two-portal Intravenous regional block 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 Wound and pillar pain, pinch and grip strength, two-point discrimination power, operative time ECTR: 0/30 OCTR: 0/30
Atroshi 2006 Prospective randomized study 2006 Sweden ECTR: 63 OCTR: 65 44/19 52/13 44 44 Two-portal technique 3, 6, 12, 48 Pain in scar, median postoperative work absence, severity of symptom, functional score, QOL, hand sensation, operative time ECTR: 2/63 (2 recurrence of symptoms, 1 for OCTR) OCTR: 1/65
Soichi Ejiri 2012 Prospective randomized controlled study 2012 Japan ECTR: 51 OCTR: 50 48/3 43/7 59 58 Okutsu’s one-portal technique Local anesthesia 4, 12 Change in subjective symptom, impairment in daily activity, APB-DL, sensation, muscle strength ECTR: 3/51 (3 exacerbation of symptoms) OCTR: 0/50
Larsen 2013 Prospective Single-blind randomized controlled study 2013 Denmark ECTR: 30 OCTR: 30 22/8 48/12 54 45 One-portal technique 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 Pain VAS score, paresthesia, grip strength, range of motion, pillar pain, duration of sick leave ECTR: 2/302 (neurapraxia) OCTR: 2/60 (2 infection)
Ho Jung Kang 2013 Prospective randomized controlled study 2013 South Korea ECTR: 52 OCTR: 52 48/4 48/4 55 55 One-portal technique General anesthesia 12 BCTQ-S, BCTQ-F, DASH, intraoperative tourniquet time, pain, scar or pillar pain UN
  1. UN unknown, BCTQ-S Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire score, DASH Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, APB-DL abductor pollicis brevis-distal latency, ADL activity of daily living.