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Table 1 Stress values at different elbow flexion angles under a vertical load of 500 N (in με; mean ± SD)

From: Effect of elbow flexion angles on stress distribution of the proximal ulnar and radius bones under a vertical load: measurement using resistance strain gauges

Working condition Tip of coronoid process Middle of coronoid process Base of coronoid process The back of ulnar notch Olecranon Radial head
−134.38 ± 19.93 −161.38 ± 19.76 −147.25 ± 21.01 46.75 ± 9.50 30.38 ± 12.21 −272.13 ± 17.52
15° −173.38 ± 21.46 −242.25 ± 26.54 −196.75 ± 34.94 101.63 ± 17.80 97.13 ± 17.32 −313.38 ± 19.98
30° −230.75 ± 29.52 −286.50 ± 32.82 −319.50 ± 34.88 198.63 ± 21.89 104.13 ± 13.89 −313.00 ± 19.93
45° −63.25 ± 11.97 −118.25 ± 17.59 −340.38 ± 32.16 259.38 ± 81.49 136.63 ± 27.09 −343.75 ± 19.17
P <0.05* <0.05* >0.05 <0.05* >0.05 >0.05
  1. *P < 0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference.