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Table 2 Pooled odds ratio for operative fixation versus conservative treatment in the meta-analysis

From: Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis

Subgroups Sample size Number of studies Random model Test of heterogeneity Egger's test for publication bias
Case Control OR (95% CI) Z p value Q p value I2(%) t p value
Overall effects 142 149 7 1.42 (0.33–6.11) 0.47 0.64 16.68 0.01 64 1.52 0.19
Study design            
  Retrospective 109 78 4 0.73 (0.15–3.55) 1.21 0.23 6.89 0.08 56 0.99 0.43
  Prospective 26 27 2 1.03 (0.17–6.40) 0.03 0.98 0.92 0.34 0.0 -0.03 0.98
Sample size            
  Sample size ≤40 66 81 5 1.36 (0.48–3.86) 0.60 0.55 1.86 0.76 0.0 0.30 0.79
  Sample size >40 102 87 3 1.52 (0.10–24.11) 0.29 0.77 14.35 0.001 86.1 - -
Ethnicity            
  European 122 134 6 1.60 (0.30–8.51) 0.55 0.58 16.64 0.005 70 1.62 0.18
  Asian 20 15 1 0.74 (0.04–12.82) 0.21 0.83 - - - - -
Operative approaches            
  Plate fixation 89 39 2 0.20 (0.05–0.76) 2.35 0.019 1.01 0.315 0.8 - -
  Tension band wiring fixation 27 26 2 1.77 (0.41–7.70) 0.76 0.445 0.20 0.657 0.0 - -
  Others 26 84 3 4.01 (0.31–45.26) 1.07 0.285 5.68 0.058 64.8 0.03 0.983