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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis

Study Country Ethnicity Sample size Study design Operative approaches Average age, years
Fan Y, 2012[20] China Asian 35 Retrospective Open reduction and locking plate internal fixation 75.0
Fjalestad T, 2005[5] Norway European 51 Retrospective and prospective AO angular blade plate, screw fixation and cerclage, antegrade screw nails, or retrograde pin fixation 75.0
Ilchmann T, 1998[9] Sweden European 24 Retrospective Tension band wiring fixation 65.2
Kristiansen B, 1988[17] Denmark European 24 Prospective Steinmann pin 69.0
Schai P, 1995[11] Switzerland European 93 Retrospective Minimal internal fixation or plate fixation 67.5
Zyto K, 1995[19] Sweden European 35 Retrospective Open reduction and internal fixation, not in detail 71.0
Zyto K, 1997[18] Sweden European 29 Prospective Tension band wiring fixation 74.0