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Table 2 Mankin scores detected in femur and tibia at sacrifice

From: Protective effects of calcium gluconate on osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy in Sprague–Dawley rats

Groups Femur Tibia
Surface Hypocellularity Clones Safranin O Totala Surface Hypocellularity Clones Safranin O Totala
Controls           
  Sham 0.25 ± 0.46 0.25 ± 0.46 0.00 ± 0.00 0.38 ± 0.52 0.88 ± 0.64 0.38 ± 0.52 0.38 ± 0.52 0.13 ± 0.35 0.38 ± 0.52 1.25 ± 1.39
  OA 2.75 ± 0.46b 2.50 ± 0.53a 2.25 ± 0.89b 2.38 ± 0.52b 9.88 ± 1.13b 2.63 ± 0.52b 2.38 ± 0.52b 2.63 ± 0.52b 2.13 ± 0.83b 9.75 ± 1.04b
  Diclofenac 2.00 ± 0.53cd 1.63 ± 0.52bd 2.25 ± 0.71b 1.38 ± 0.52bd 7.25 ± 1.39bd 1.88 ± 0.64be 1.63 ± 0.74be 1.75 ± 0.46bd 1.38 ± 0.74ce 6.63 ± 1.19bd
Calcium gluconate treated          
  100 mg/kg 1.38 ± 0.74bd 1.25 ± 0.89bd 1.50 ± 0.76b 0.63 ± 0.52d 4.75 ± 1.98bd 1.25 ± 0.71bd 1.00 ± 0.76d 1.00 ± 0.76bd 1.25 ± 0.71ce 4.50 ± 2.20bd
  50 mg/kg 2.00 ± 0.76be 1.50 ± 0.76bd 1.75 ± 0.46b 2.13 ± 0.35b 7.38 ± 1.77bd 2.00 ± 0.76be 1.63 ± 0.52be 1.50 ± 0.53bd 1.38 ± 0.74ce 6.50 ± 2.20bd
  25 mg/kg 2.38 ± 0.74b 2.38 ± 0.52b 2.50 ± 0.53b 2.50 ± 0.76b 9.75 ± 1.16b 2.75 ± 0.46b 2.38 ± 0.74b 2.13 ± 0.64b 1.88 ± 0.83 9.13 ± 2.30b
  1. After 84 days of continuous oral treatment of calcium gluconate or subcutaneous treatment of diclofenac sodium in OA rats. Values are expressed as mean ± SD of eight rats, scores (Table 1). OA, osteoarthritis. aTotal means Mankin score (max = 12); bp < 0.01 and cp < 0.05 compared with those of sham control; dp < 0.01 and ep < 0.05 compared with those of OA control.