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Table 3 Summary of lumbar lordotic angle and end-plate angles of lumbar spine based on whole spine lateral radiography

From: The effect of age on sagittal plane profile of the lumbar spine according to standing, supine, and various sitting positions

Group Factors Standing Supine Sitting
     30° 60° 90°
Young age group ф 1 3.81 ± 2.94 -0.27 ± 1.93 -1.78 ± 3.85 -2.33 ± 4.13 0.47 ± 3.70
ф 2 5.53 ± 2.86 1.98 ± 2.95 1.40 ± 4..20 1.04 ± 2.77 0.84 ± 3.74
ф 3 9.32 ± 1.78 6.30 ± 3.78 5.56 ± 2.46 2.73 ± 2.34 2.44 ± 3.78
ф 4 12.51 ± 4.00 12.64 ± 4.52 12.83 ± 4.15 4.54 ± 2.56 1.87 ± 3.84
ф 5 22.38 ± 6.12 20.50 ± 3.09 22.14 ± 5.66 12.45 ± 3.96 8.96 ± 4.47
Ф 52.20 ± 7.95 40.16 ± 8.84 39.25 ± 6.92 17.30 ± 7.10 13.52 ± 11.61
ULL 18.66 ± 4.32 8.01 ± 7.20 5.18 ± 7.24 1.44 ± 6.64 3.74 ± 9.35
LLL 34.88 ± 7.40 33.14 ± 5.45 37.97 ± 7.29 16.99 ± 4.43 10.56 ± 6.35
Old age group ф 1 1.78 ± 3.77 0.12 ± 2.97 -0.18 ± 4.02 0.28 ± 4.32 -0.11 ± 3.60
ф 2 5.22 ± 4.99 2.78 ± 3.51 4.10 ± 4.34 3.14 ± 4.61 2.54 ± 4.13
ф 3 7.51 ± 4.19 7.39 ± 3.80 8.41 ± 4.32 6.38 ± 4.88 4.25 ± 4.22
ф 4 14.68 ± 3.23 14.88 ± 3.86 11.97 ± 4.85 8.75 ± 3.07 6.83 ± 5.18
ф 5 24.98 ± 8.37 23.42 ± 6.77 22.98 ± 7.64 16.75 ± 7.39 14.61 ± 4.06
Ф 53.90 ± 15.90 49.50 ± 13.12 46.91 ± 12.63 35.02 ± 10.26 27.87 ± 9.15
  ULL 14.51 ± 9.72 10.28 ± 7.83 12.33 ± 10.23 9.80 ± 10.66 6.68 ± 9.66
  LLL 39.66 ± 8.75 38.30 ± 8.44 34.94 ± 10.41 25.50 ± 8.29 14.61 ± 4.06
  1. The values are in degrees, and the mark ‘°’ means the degree; ф1 means the first segmental angle which was measured between upper end plate of the first lumbar and upper end plate of the second lumbar vertebrae; ф2 means the second segmental angle which was measured between the upper end plate of the second lumbar and upper end plate of the third lumbar vertebrae; ф3 means the third segmental angle which was measured between the upper end plate of the third lumbar and upper end plate of the fourth lumbar vertebrae. ф4 means the fourth segmental angle which was measured between the upper end plate of the fourth lumbar and upper end plate of the fifth lumbar vertebrae; ф5 means the fifth segmental angle which was measured between the upper end plate of the fourth lumbar and upper end plate of the first sacral vertebrae. Ф means lumbar lordosis which was measured between the upper end plate of the first lumbar and upper end plate of the first sacral vertebrae. ULL and LLL means upper lumbar lordosis and lower lumbar lordosis.