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Table 2 Treatment outcome according to treatment group

From: Pediatric femoral shaft fractures: treatment strategies according to age - 13 years of experience in one medical center

Outcome Plating IMN Skin traction Ex-Fix TEN Spica
Uniona 100 100 100 100 100 100
Nonunion - - - - - -
Malunion - - - - - -
LLD (% of patients)       
 Normal LLD 100 63.6 100 67 84.2 92.7
 LLD >2 cm of shortening - - - 16 5.3 4.6
 LLD >1 cm of lengthening - 27.3 - 16 10.5 2.7
 Total LLD - 27.3 - 33 15.8 7.3
Complications (% of patients)       
 None 100 100 100 75 91.5 85.4
 Local infection - - - 8.3 - 1.3
 Limitation of range of motion - - - 8.3 - 0.66
 Avascular necrosis - - - - - -
 Contact dermatitis - - - - - 6.6
 Re-manipulation and casting - - - - - 6.6
 Re-fracture - - - 8.3 - -
 Neurovascular deficit - - - - - -
 Soft tissue irritation at insertion site (for TEN procedures) - - - - 9.5 -
 Change in type of treatment - - - - - 0.66
  1. aRadiographic confirmation of solid union regardless of treatment method. There were no cases of malunion. TEN titanium elastic nail, Ex-Fix external fixator, IMN intramedullary medullary nail, LLD leg length discrepancies.