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Table 1 Summary of clinical studies using Pulsed Electromagnetic Field therapy in tibial delayed unions and nonunions

From: Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of tibial delayed unions and nonunions. A prospective clinical study and review of the literature

Study Year Design Number of tibia fractures Mean treatment duration Hours per day Union rate
De Haas (17) 1980 Prospective, non-randomized 17 23.6 weeks 20 88.2%
Bassett (15) 1981 Prospective, non-randomized 127 5.2 months 10 87%
Sharrard (19) 1982 Prospective, non-randomized 30 6 months 12 to 16 86.7%
Barker (14) 1984 Prospective, randomized, double-blind 16 24 weeks 12 to 16 55.6%
De Haas (16) 1986 Prospective, non-randomised 56 ND ND 84%
Sharrard (18) 1990 Prospective, randomized, double-blind 45 12 weeks 12 45%
Scott (22) 1994 Prospective, randomized, double-blind 15 26.8 weeks ND 60%
Simonis (20) 2003 Prospective randomized, double-blind 34 6 months ND 70.6%
Gupta (21) 2009 Prospective, non-randomized 45 8.35 weeks ND 85%
Current study 2011 Prospective, non-randomized 44 29.5 weeks 3 77.3%
  1. ND: Not Defined.