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Table 4 SHEAR loading: Slope values in N/mm, characterizing the effective passive stiffness of ring modules, were calculated based on linear trends between zero and maximum displacement points

From: The use of twin-ring Ilizarov external fixator constructs: application and biomechanical proof-of principle with possible clinical indications

Passive Stiffness Values Average ± St.Deviation (N/mm) SHEAR loading
   negative direction positive direction both directions overall
TWIN RING module ± 3 mm 26.8 ± 0.1 28.9 ± 0.4 27.9 ± 1.1 27.9 ± 1.3
  ± 5 mm 29.3 ± 0.5 26.6 ± 0.5 28.0 ± 1.5  
SINGLE RING module ± 3 mm 19.3 ± 0.6 15.9 ± 0.5 17.6 ± 1.9 18.5 ± 5.3
  ± 5 mm 26.4 ± 0.6 12.4 ± 0.3 19.4 ± 7.4