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Table 3 AXIAL loading: Slope values in N/mm, characterizing the effective passive stiffness of ring modules, were calculated based on linear trends between zero and maximum displacement points

From: The use of twin-ring Ilizarov external fixator constructs: application and biomechanical proof-of principle with possible clinical indications

Passive Stiffness Values Average ± St.Deviation (N/mm) AXIAL loading
   negative direction positive direction both directions overall
TWIN RING module ± 3 mm 67.2 ± 0.2 69.1 ± 0.2 68.2 ± 1.1 71.4 ± 3.0
  ± 5 mm 70.2 ± 0.2 75.1 ± 0.1 72.7 ± 2.6  
  ± 7 mm 75.3 ± 0.2 71.2 ± 0.2 73.2 ± 2.1  
SINGLE RING module ± 3 mm 92.3 ± 0.2 92.2 ± 0.4 92.2 ± 0.3 94.4 ± 2.9
  ± 5 mm 98.0 ± 0.2 95.1 ± 0.2 96.6 ± 1.5  
  ± 7 mm 98.0 ± 0.2 91.1 ± 0.3 94.5 ± 3.6