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Table 3 AXIAL loading: Slope values in N/mm, characterizing the effective passive stiffness of ring modules, were calculated based on linear trends between zero and maximum displacement points

From: The use of twin-ring Ilizarov external fixator constructs: application and biomechanical proof-of principle with possible clinical indications

Passive Stiffness Values Average ± St.Deviation (N/mm)

AXIAL loading

  

negative direction

positive direction

both directions

overall

TWIN RING module

± 3 mm

67.2 ± 0.2

69.1 ± 0.2

68.2 ± 1.1

71.4 ± 3.0

 

± 5 mm

70.2 ± 0.2

75.1 ± 0.1

72.7 ± 2.6

 
 

± 7 mm

75.3 ± 0.2

71.2 ± 0.2

73.2 ± 2.1

 

SINGLE RING module

± 3 mm

92.3 ± 0.2

92.2 ± 0.4

92.2 ± 0.3

94.4 ± 2.9

 

± 5 mm

98.0 ± 0.2

95.1 ± 0.2

96.6 ± 1.5

 
 

± 7 mm

98.0 ± 0.2

91.1 ± 0.3

94.5 ± 3.6