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Table 1 Mean range of motion of each model on the biomechanical study

From: Tadpole system as new lumbar spinal instrumentation

    (mean± SD)
  ROM of forward – backward flextion ROM of right – left side bending ROM of right – left side rotaton
Normal control model 7.2° ± 4.8° 7.8° ± 3.8° 13.8° ± 7.1°
Injured model 18.6° ± 6.2° 22.1° ± 8.8° 24.8° ± 10.4°
PSF model 4.3° ± 2.9° 2.5° ± 1.3° 3.4° ± 2.6°
TS model 3.4° ± 2.2° 5.1° ± 2.5° 7.9° ± 5.2°
  1. Normal control model; non-treatment model
  2. Injured model; model resected the facet joint between L3 and L4
  3. PSF model; model generated from the injured model with pedicle screw fixation
  4. TS model; model created from the injured model with the Tadpole system®