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Table 2 Accuracy of the model-based technique (RMS errors, mean ± standard deviation) expressed in kinematic parameters that describe motion of the patella relative to the femur.

From: Accuracy of biplane x-ray imaging combined with model-based tracking for measuring in-vivo patellofemoral joint motion

Kinematic Parameter Bias Precision Overall Dynamic Accuracy
Shift (med/lat translation) 0.320 ± 0.105 mm 0.114 ± 0.039 mm 0.395 ± 0.079 mm
Anterior/posterior translation -0.293 ± 0.201 mm 0.042 ± 0.011 mm 0.340 ± 0.162 mm
Superior/inferior translation -0.107 ± 0.312 mm 0.058 ± 0.026 mm 0.315 ± 0.126 mm
Flexion 0.475 ± 0.420° 0.216 ± 0.139° 0.875 ± 0.237°
Tilt -0.052 ± 0.651° 0.322 ± 0.214° 0.863 ± 0.156°
Rotation -0.090 ± 0.290° 0.382 ± 0.239° 0.877 ± 0.090°