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Table 3 Overview regarding three microcirculatory changes and its physiological effect on the tendon.

From: The role of tendon microcirculation in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy

Microcirculatory change Physiological effect on the tendon
Capillary tendon flow↑ Potential harmful, increases pain by aggravation of neovascularisation
Capillary tendon flow↓ Beneficial, decreases pain by reducing neovascularisation, might harm the tendon at very low levels (threshold yet undetermined), achieved by cryotherapy and compression as well as eccentric training only
Tendon oxygenation↑ Beneficial, tendon oxygenation is increased, the resistance against ischemia is increased, hyperaemia is beneficial, achieved by combined cryotherapy and compression as well as eccentric training and Achilles wrap
Tendon oxygenation↓ Harmful, limits tendon oxygenation, increases lactate levels with acidosis, following ischemia
Postcapillary venous filling pressure↑ Harmful, increased pressure decreases clearance of local metabolic end products, consecutive increase in capillary flow following venous congestion, facilitating of infections and wound problems due to local stasis in venous congestion, increased in thrombosis and postthrombotic state
Postcapillary venous filling pressure↓ Beneficial, since clearance of metabolic end products is facilitated, achieved by cryotherapy and compression as well as by eccentric training and Achilles wrap