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Table 1 3D loading-measurement system verification. Measured intact equine radii stiffness values for selected load ranges of the third loading cycle were observed to be the same order of magnitude as theoretically predicted values for compression, torsion, and 4-point bending.

From: Development of an in vitro three dimensional loading-measurement system for long bone fixation under multiple loading conditions: a technical description

  Mean (± SD) stiffness of 50 mm long test segment
  Axial Compression (N/mm) + Torsion (Nm/deg) - Torsion (Nm/deg) CrCa Bend (Nm/deg) CaCr Bend (Nm/deg) LM Bend (Nm/deg) ML Bend (Nm/deg)
Load Ranges 200 to 4000 N 10 to 50 Nm -10 to -50 Nm 10 to 150 Nm
Measured using: 3D loading-measurement system
Intact Control 295000 (± 130977) +430 (± 49) -405 (± 57) 1007 (± 258) 885 (± 117) 1680 (± 395) 1452 (± 368)
Theoretical using: classical mechanics equations, cross-section measured dimensions, & two shapes
Ellipse (hollow) 278000 (± 15261) 250 (± 26) 400 (± 49) 879 (± 94)
Rectangle (hollow) 354000 (± 35277) 556 (± 57) 679 (± 83) 1490 (± 159)
  1. Bone properties assumed: Modulus of Elasticity (E) = 18000 N/mm2. Range in literature: (8900 ≤ E ≤ 42000)
  2. Shear Modulus (G) = 4615 N/mm2. Range in literature: (3500 ≤ G ≤ 8710)