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Table 4 Summary of complications of tibial shaft football fractures according to treatment method and their outcomes.

From: Tibial shaft fractures in football players

AO Class Treatment Complication Outcome
Closed 42A2 Cast Position slipped at day 12 IM nail. Nail was removed at 13 months because of anterior knee pain.
Closed 42A3 (fibula intact) Cast Position slipped at day 9 IM nail
Closed 42A2 Cast Position slipped at day 28 IMnail
Closed 42A3 Cast Position slipped at 8 IM nail
Closed 42A3 Cast Non-union at 5 months Underwent bone grafting and plating plus fibulectomy. Subsequently lost to follow-up.
Closed 42A3 IM nail Anterior knee pain Nail removed at 29 months
Closed 42A3 IM nail Delayed union Dynamisation at 24 weeks
Closed 42A3 IM nail Anterior knee pain Nail removed at 24 weeks
Closed 42B2 IM nail (at 23 hrs) Fat embolism Admitted to Intensive Care for 2 days then discharged on day 8 post-op. Fracture subsequently united.
Closed 42A2 IM nail Anterior and medial knee pain. Self-discharged from clinic and lost to follow-up.