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Table 1 list of subjective symptoms and clinical findings presented by the players, out of which pain, joint line tenderness and effusion were common denominators.

From: The importance of early arthroscopy in athletes with painful cartilage lesions of the ankle: a prospective study of 61 consecutive cases

Subjective Symptoms Number of players Percentage (%)
Pain 58/61 95
Swelling 15/61 25
Stiffness 2/61 3
Instability 12/61 20
Clicking or locking 8/61 13
Clinical findings   
Joint line tenderness 56/61 92
Effusion 46/61 75
Decreased ROM 24/61 39
Clicking on passive movement 3/61 5
+ Anterior drawer/Talar tilt test 29/61 48
+ Anterior impingement test 19/61 31
  1. Instability was claimed by 12/61 players, but only as secondary minor symptoms to their main complaint which was pain, thus passing our inclusion criteria. It is remarkable that 48% of the players had positive anterior drawer and talar tilt tests, whilst only 20% had any symptoms of instability at all and none of them claimed this was a major problem for them. Furthermore, even though only 25% complained of swelling, effusion was observed in 75% of the ankles.